1-2: This is paul’s second letter to Timothy, written when he was imprisoned and waiting to be executed. Paul’s introduction tells us that it was God’s will to make him in apostle, that we have the promise of eternal life in Jesus, and that God is the source of grace, mercy, and peace. 

3-5: The ancestors Paul spoke of were the Jews. Timothy came from a family of godly women, who were likely an inspiration and example to him.

6-9: Timothy was facing pressure from inside and outside the church, as Christians were being persecuted by the Roman government. Paul worried that Timothy’s faith and ministry would die out, so he tried to encourage him. His words are still relevant to us today. We have the Holy Spirit dwelling in us and shouldn't fear those who persecute us. We shouldn’t be ashamed of the Gospel message or our Christian brothers and sisters around the world who are being persecuted. We should be willing to suffer whatever consequences come from preaching and living out the Gospel. 

10-14: To embolden Timothy, Paul pointed out that God is sovereign over our salvation and guards it with the Holy Spirit that dwells in us.

15-18: Paul was abandoned by friends in Asia, probably because he was a prisoner and they didn’t want to associate with him out of fear and shame. Onesiphorus bravely went into Rome to find Paul and serve him, despite the persecution of Christians that was beginning.


1: When we experience suffering and persecution, we can find strength in the “grace that is in Jesus”; it’s the knowledge that Jesus died for our sins so we can be confident we no longer have to experience God’s wrath on judgment day. 

2: Timothy was commanded to entrust Paul’s teaching to faithful men. The goal was for them to be elders, so they could teach it to others.

3-4: Civilians of the worldly system (people who reject Christ), pursue worldly pleasures and causes that contradict the Gospel. However, the follower of Christ should avoid these things by faithfully serving their leader the way a soldier serves his. 

5: Just as an athlete has to play by the rules to receive a reward, Christians must also serve God according to his word in order to receive an eternal reward. Although we’re saved by God’s grace alone, we can receive eternal rewards in addition to our salvation. We can’t bend God’s rules; instead, we must follow them the way an athlete who receives a reward does.

6: Serving God can be hard work. Those who do so faithfully will be rewarded.

7: Paul promised Timothy that God would give him understanding. We too can gain understanding of spiritual truths through the Holy Spirit.

8-9: Although Paul was physically bound in prison, God’s message would still spread throughout the world.

10: The elect are those God predestined to receive his grace. Paul was able to endure persecution because he knew his ministry was being used to save them. 

11-13: Paul confirmed the truthfulness of a saying regarding the elect. Those who have died with Christ (repented and put their faith in him), serve God faithfully until the end of their lives. But those who reject God are faithless and deny him by rejecting the Gospel.

14-19: This section continues to discuss the teachers and elders who serve God. They are to teach God’s word accurately (rightfully handling the word of truth). Their duty also includes rebuking those who spread false doctrine as Hymenaeus and Philetus did. Verse 19 expands beyond elders saying that all believers in Christ should be repentant, “departing from iniquity”.

20-22: All people are God’s vessels/tools that he uses to accomplish his will and expand his kingdom. Just as some vessels/utensils in a house are used for honorable tasks like feeding guests, God uses some of his followers for honorable uses such as teaching, leading, serving those in need, and sharing the Gospel. Some Vessels are used for do less desirable (dishonorable) tasks such as dispose of waste. This is a metaphor for both unbelievers and Christians living in sin. They are still used by God but it’s to their shame. In God’s sovereignty, He even uses evil deeds to accomplish his will (dishonorable use). He used Joseph’s brothers’ evil deed to save Israel from famine and bring them to Egypt (Genesis 50:20), Judas’ betrayal to bring about Jesus’ sacrifice to Save sinners, and in the end will display his perfect justice against those who reject Him (Revelation 20:11-15). If we want to be used in an honorable way, we must “cleanse ourselves from what is dishonorable”. For the unbeliever this means repenting and trusting in Jesus as payment for their sins. For the believer living in sin, it means to repent of specific sins and turning back to God. 

23-26: Foolish controversies are unnecessary debates that cause quarreling rather than a genuine search for truth. It often manifests itself in the form of tribalistic political discourse or emotional fights over secondary theological issues. When followers of Christ engage in debate, we should discern between “foolish controversies” and topics worthy of genuine debate. When correcting someone, our words should be marked with love, kindness, truth, and gentleness. We are merely God’s representatives so it’s not our job to force others into changing their minds. Only God can grant repentance and acceptance of truth.


1-5: Although these traits have always existed in people, they will increase as we approach “the last days”. Today, it’s very visible on social media and among activists across the political spectrum. Despite their hatred, slander, and violent protests, they “have the appearance of godliness but deny it’s power” by presenting themselves as tolerant champions of progress while denying God’s existence. 

6: Among these are people who exploit women for their own benefit. Pornography and prostitution are distorted as “sexually liberating women” to profit financially or fulfill perverted desires.

7: We have an endless flow of information on the internet, which causes many people to constantly be ‘learning’, yet never they arrive to a knowledge of the truth. You can choose what every information or authority you like, without having your worldview challenged.

8-9: James and Jambres aren’t directly mentioned in the Old Testament, but apocryphal Jewish and Roman sources say they were the Egyptian magicians who mimicked the plagues and miracles of Moses. Regardless of who they were, the important point is that they opposed Moses and were used as an analogy for those who oppose the truth. They may seem to be victorious in opposing the truth for a time, but eventually “their folly will be plain to all” when Christ returns.

10-13: Timothy was mentored by Paul during the persecution Paul endured. When we desire to live a godly life, we will face persecution to some degree. It can cost some them their lives, while others may just face loss of jobs, friends, or be ridiculed. In contrast, false converts and evil people will grow in wickedness, deceive others, and be deceived themselves.

14-15: Although Timothy grew up studying scripture and holding firmly to the faith, Paul still saw it necessary to urge him to persist. There are many things that can cause believers to backpedal and fall away from the faith. We must be make a constant effort to stand firm and devoted to Christ. The scriptures make us “wise for salvation through Jesus” because they teach us about our sinful, fallen state and teach us how Jesus paid for our sins. If we trust that his death and resurrection paid the penalty we deserve, we will be saved. 

16-17: The Bible (scripture) is God’s message to mankind. Although the authors were human, God sovereignly guided their thoughts to say what He wanted to communicate (2 Peter 1:20-21). When we gain a knowledge of the scriptures, we are equipped to do the good works God prepared for us (Ephesians 2:10)


1-8: Paul knew that he was going to die soon. In this final letter, he passed the torch to Timothy, to carry on his evangelistic ministry and protect the church from false doctrines. He knew that many false teachers would spring up and try to deceive the church. Many heretical documents and apocryphal books survived from that period, confirming Paul’s prediction. Yet because Timothy and many faithful followers of Christ defended the truth, these false teachingsdid not prevail against the Church.

9-15: Paul was abandoned by a false convert (Demas) and the others with him went to preach in other cities. Only Luke remained with him.  He wanted to see Timothy one last time, and have him bring his parchments (probably scrolls of Old Testament texts) and a coat he forgot.

16-17: During Paul’s trial, no one defended him as witnesses (Luke, who was with him, recorded this encounter in Acts 28). However, God strengthened him to give a strong defense from the scriptures, even converting some of his listeners. This bought him at least 2 more years to evangelize and carry out his mission and reach the gentiles (Acts 28: 23-31). 

18: Paul firmly trusted that Jesus rescued him from the evil deeds he had committed. God poured out his wrath on Jesus so Paul could be safely brought into the kingdom. God’s grace will bring him glory for all eternity. 

19-22: Paul closed with information useful to Timothy about their fellow brothers and sisters in Christ.